Socialistisk ekonomi har förknippats med olika skolor inom det ekonomiska tänkandet, främst marxistisk ekonomi, institutionell ekonomi och evolutionär ekonomi. Tidig socialism, såsom ricardiansk socialism, var baserad på den klassiska nationalekonomin, och vissa former av marknadssocialism bygger på neoklassiska skolan.
- ^ Schweickart, David; Lawler, James; Ticktin, Hillel; Ollman, Bertell (1998). ”The Difference Between Marxism and Market Socialism”. Market Socialism: The Debate Among Socialists. sid. 61-63. ”More fundamentally, a socialist society must be one in which the economy is run on the principle of the direct satisfaction of human needs /.../ Exchange-value, prices and so money are goals in themselves in a capitalist society or in any market. There is no necessary connection between the accumulation of capital or sums of money and human welfare. Under conditions of backwardness, the spur of money and the accumulation of wealth has led to a massive growth in industry and technology /.../ It seems an odd argument to say that a capitalist will only be efficient in producing use-value of a good quality when trying to make more money than the next capitalist. It would seem easier to rely on the planning of use-values in a rational way, which because there is no duplication, would be produced more cheaply and be of a higher quality.”
- ^ ”Socialism and Calculation”. worldsocialism.org. Arkiverad från originalet den 7 juni 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110607071929/http://www.worldsocialism.org/spgb/overview/calculation.pdf. Läst 22 juli 2011. ”Although money, and so monetary calculation, will disappear in socialism this does not mean that there will no longer be any need to make choices, evaluations and calculations /.../ Wealth will be produced and distributed in its natural form of useful things, of objects that can serve to satisfy some human need or other. Not being produced for sale on a market, items of wealth will not acquire an exchange-value in addition to their use-value. In socialism their value, in the normal non-economic sense of the word, will not be their selling price nor the time needed to produce them but their usefulness. It is for this that they will be appreciated, evaluated, wanted. . . and produced.”